A New Experience

by Segun Odegbami © Segun Odegbami (December 6th 2014)

Return to Tunisia

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I am definitely outside my comfort zone – in a strange environment, amongst stranger people. I’m back in Tunisia – a country that has pleasant memories for me – but this trip has nothing to do with football. I have not read any newspapers or watched any news channel on television since I arrived here a week ago.

Tunisia is a French and Arabic speaking country and there are no English speaking news channel such as CNN, BBC, or even Aljazeera, etc. on television here. Although there is a channel that shows some sports, including some football matches and analysis, that too is in Arabic and only once did I see a recorded Barclays Premier League match with Arabic commentaries.

So, do not blame me if my column this week has nothing of my regular comments and analysis on football matters. Having said that, permit me and enjoy me tell you a little of my experiences.

Memories

In the past one week I have been in Tunisia. The last time I visited the North African country was some 20 years ago on the occasion of the 1994 African Cup of Nations. The Eagles won the championship,Tunisia ’94 then, marking the second time Nigeria won the prestigious African competition.

The first time was in 1980.1 In that same year, 1994, the Green Eagles were re-christened Super Eagles, and qualified for the first time to represent Africa as one of Africa’s five representatives to the 1994 World Cup. So, I have very fond memories of Tunisia, which was unlike any other North African Arab country I know. Although it is a Muslim country, it does not shove religion in the faces of visitors.

So, from my visit 20 years ago I remember Tunis, Souse and also Carthage – a city rich in history and culture that Rome owed its emergence as a world power to and which could not be fully erased from history despite Romeʼs best efforts.

Segun at Wembley

A footballer at the 2014 African Basketball Championship

I did not know about Sfax then. But here I am in the city attending the 2014 African Basketball Club Championship for Women in my capacity as consultant to one of the two Nigerian clubs at the championship, the First Bank Basketball Club. The team is known as the Elephant Girls.

Seven days in Sfax have been some sort of education and also baptism for me into the world of international basketball. It is a world that I find completely different from football. It is simpler and less political, even though it also not without its own idiosyncrasies and intrigues.

In the past two years I have been involved in basketball as well as footbball. This is my first international trip with the current national women’s basketball champions of Nigeria, and make no mistake, they are serious contenders for the African title here in Sfax.

I am learning pretty fast. I am interacting at close quarters with some of Africa’s top female basketball players and administrators;. I am observing how the championship is run, meeting with those that run it and exchanging information and views about the differences and similarities between football and basketball administration. I am sharing experiences and expectations; observing the teams and sharing their moments of joyful celebration as well as painful losses.

In short, with all its headaches (and there are a few) this trip has provided me the opportunity to peep into the world of basketball.

The Sfax Experience

Sfax is a large seaport situated some 270 kilometres east of Tunis on the Mediterranean coast. I am told it has the largest fishing trawlers in Africa and has the world’s second largest deposit of Phosphate. However, for some reason Sfax is dusty. The entire city is covered always in white dust blown probably from the desert located to the south.

There is a regular pall and smell of tobacco in the air. It is everywhere. As our guide, Mahmoud, told me, (I guess he may be exaggerating) about 90% of all adult Tunisians smoke heavily. That’s probably why there is no law prohibiting smoking anywhere in Tunisia, public places inclusive.

The hotel we are staying in must be one of the most polluted places in the world. You need to see and experience it to understand what I am talking about. Every corridor, the restaurant, the lobby, the lounges, the bar, everywhere is filled with the reeking smell and fumes of cigarette smoke. It assaults the eyes and nostrils everywhere you turn to.

Marginally Worse

There is, however, one other place worse than the hotel – the indoor sports hall of the CS Sfax Sports Club – venue of the ongoing African Women’s Basketball Championship. Although it is a massive beautiful edifice with excellent state-of-the-art facilities, the place has little ventilation and, so, regularly suffocates with the acrid smell and fumes from tobacco consumed freely within this enclosure.

It is often packed with thousands of cigarette-smoking spectators whenever CS Sfax Sport Club, is playing. In one week I must have involuntarily inhaled more cigarette-fumes into my lungs than I have done in the totality of the rest of my life. It is that serious. This totally negates the health intentions of sports.

Something Different

Beyond that, Sfax is really different. Here, no one uses seat belts whilst driving their cars. There may also be no enforcement of restrictions about answering mobile phones whilst driving, as everyone’s driving with a handset in one hand. Cars are parked randomly everywhere.

Despite being a predominantly Muslim country alcohol is available in every hotel bar.

Credit and debit cards are only sparingly used, if at all, and in my experience, only in the banks. The Internet is not easily accessible. I hope all of this is limited to Sfax.  

When we attended an official reception for the heads of delegates of all the participating countries at the championship, the entire programme was conducted in French and Arabic. No one interpreted for those that did not understand either of the languages and no apologies were offered. Yet there were participants from Nigeria, Kenya and Angola.

Life in Sfax is leisurely. The unofficial clothing of the people is jeans. Two out of every three Tunisians (male and female) wear jeans on a regular basis. It is everywhere. This simple act itself tells a lot about their liberal society. There are hardly any security personnel visible around the town. We are told there is no need for them.

Finally, the championships we came for itself has been excellent and the matches competitive, particularly with the addition of professional players in all the participating teams. The practice is that when clubs qualify for the African championships they are allowed to recruit a certain number of professionals from outside their country to strengthen them. That way the standard of the matches is higher and sponsors are attracted.

First Bank Basketball Club has three Nigerian players from the USA. They are making a big impression here and have been great ambassadors of the sport. The championship ends this Sunday. It’s been a truly new and different experience, I mean, for a footballer to experience life in the world of basketball.

Kalusha Bwalya 2

1Odegbami played a vital role in the success of 1980. He was Nigeriaʼs best player and scored 2 of his teamʼs goals against Algeria in the 3-0 triumph, which resulted in Nigeria winning the African Cup of Nations trophy for the first time. He was rewarded with the captaincy. He retired from international football the following year. Nigeriaʼs second title came in 1994, ending Zambiaʼs impossible dream to win the trophy months after the devastating Gabon Plane Disaster, which killed the Golden Generation of the Chipolopolo with the exception of perhaps their greatest ever player and current President of the Zambian Football Association, Kalusha Bwalya. The Super-Eagles won it for the third time last year: The Editor.

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The Mark of Zoro (Part Four) – Archive

 

by Satish Sekar © Satish Sekar January 1st 2007

The regulations [to deal with racist conduct] were there, but it is the primary role of the national associations to tackle the problems that arise in their national football competitions”, says a FIFA spokesperson.

Discipline and Ethics

“The regulations [to deal with racist conduct] were there, but it is the primary role of the national associations to tackle the problems that arise in their national football competitions”, says a FIFA spokesperson. Racist conduct is contrary to both FIFA’s Disciplinary Code and Ethics Code.

The English Football Association could have used these procedures to deal with racist abuse in the heyday of the plague of racism and hooliganism that blighted our game in the 1970s and 80s. So why did it require Samuel Eto’o to force the issue onto the agenda in Spain and Marc Zoro in Italy more than 20 years after the Heysel stadium tragedy shamed the English FA into action?

And why did both the Italian and Spanish Football Federations tolerate racist abuse for so long? While Eto’o is clearly the higher profile player, the abuse that Zoro has suffered persistently over a longer period raises the question of why the racism that he has suffered and his stand against it was not enough to get FIFA to announce that it would get tough with racists in football earlier.

Racism in football was a scandal that had disgraced the sport for too long – far too long – and now the governing bodies of both European and world football would demand action. National Federations could no longer ignore the issue. If they tried to do so, both they and the clubs could be punished. Previously the racists had been answered by black players with their talent.

Now, thanks to Zoro and Eto’o it was clear that they were prepared to vote with their feet if necessary. Rule 55 was changed to include stiff penalties for racist conduct and sanctions against those federations who refused to implant the rules. It appeared that there would be no hiding place for the racists. But Sicily was different. According to Sicilians there is no racism in Sicily. We had to investigate.

Sicily does not have a problem with racism, says Gaetano Mustica. “We are not a racist country.”

The Effect of Rome

Sicily thrived under the Romans. They provided a stability – lacking during the rivalries between the Greek cities and Carthage – that would last more than seven-hundred years. Paganism would be swept aside by Christianity in the early fourth century AD by the Emperor Constantine.

Supporters of the old ways fought tenaciously to suppress the emerging cult as it was seen. Sicily saw the martyrdom of Saints Agatha and Lucia. Before long their martyrdom was vindicated by Constantine. However, tensions persisted. It would not be long before religious conflict would find an outlet in Sicily. But before this the ailing Roman Empire would come to an end.

In the fifth century AD Rome was sacked. It set in motion the events that would destroy the most successful empire the world has ever seen. With Rome no longer in any position to retain its empire, Sicily faced an uncertain future. The Barbarians that ended the Roman Empire took control of Sicily. The Vandals gave way to the Ostragoths.

And in 535 the Byzantine Emperor Justinian sent a mercenary army under the command of Belisarius to drive the Barbarians out. The Byzantines faced little resistance. Churches were built including in both Palermo and nearby Monreale by the Byzantines. Their control of Sicily would last into the ninth century.

Religious Conflicts

The Byzantines repelled many threats including early ones from the Saracens. The first attacks on Sicily began as early as 655. In 827 the final Islamic invasion began. This campaign would get bogged down. Saracen reinforcements arrived in 831. They were met by determined resistance. It took decades to subdue the island. Siracusa fell in 877 and lost its status as capital of Sicily. That honour would pass to Palermo.

Churches were destroyed by the Saracens. Mosques were erected in their place including in Monreale and Palermo. They brought much to Sicily that would have a lasting impact. Theron’s pool in Agrigento had been filled in by the Romans and given over to agriculture.

As the Tyrant of Agrigento had previously forced Carthaginian prisoners to dig the drainage system for the city-state the Muslims brought the latest techniques in irrigation. They also brought vegetation to the island – citrus fruits for example. The great pool of Theron became the Kolymbetra garden and was the pride of Agrigento. It still is.

That would not have happened without the agricultural and irrigation expertise that the Arabs brought to Sicily. They also brought exceptional architectural skill to the island – a legacy that outlasted Islamic control of Sicily by centuries. The tensions between Christians and Muslims had led to racist incidents in other countries. Would Sicily be any different?

Historic Influences

Racism had reared its head in Spain. Historic tensions between Christians and Muslims resulted in several violent conflicts spread over centuries. In sport these tensions manifested themselves in racist conduct. Monkey-chanting was thought acceptable, but not in Sicily.

Italy had a clear Moorish influence as did Sicily. “Sicily is not a racist country,” says author and B&B owner Gaetano Mustica. “We have had too many foreign influences in our history to be racist. We have incorporated bits of many cultures into our own for over 3000 years”.

As Marc Zoro says, he has been racially abused all over Italy. He describes the north and centre as the worst, but it happens everywhere. And it happens all over Spain too. For too many years it was considered the price that had to be paid by black players if they wanted to make it in Spain.

Italy also ignored the problem for years. But Mustica is adamant that there cannot be a problem with racism in Sicilian football as there is no problem with racism in Sicily as a whole. “Sicily is unique”, he says. “Other countries have been conquered, but none have had as many as us. We have adopted the best of each culture and made them our own. It has made us the people we are.”

Is Mustica right, or is there a problem with racism in Sicily in general or in its football? Are Sicilians ignoring the problem too, or does this enchanting island really not have a problem with racism? The evidence of football at least supports Mustica. Racism came to Messina through supporters of Inter, not from Sicilians.

 

The Continuation of War by Other Means – Archive

by Satish Sekar © Satish Sekar January 1st 2007

What is it Good For?

Catania and Palermo have been at loggerheads for so long nobody remembers how and when it started. The city-states of centuries ago have long since ceased to exist. Now nation sates incorporate them, but the rivalries continue, demanding an outlet. Football and its tribal following provide it. The city-state battles gave way to ultras organising battles and fighting them. They spilled out of stadiums and onto the streets.

In War by Other Means, we highlighted the origin of the long rivalry. A Hundred Year War had settled little, but weakened the city-states of Carthage and Siracusa. But the wars were far from over. Carthage never achieved its aim of subordinating all of Sicily to its will. Neither did Siracusa. Rome would achieve that feat and would subdue both Carthage and Siracusa in the process.

Messina had been overrun by mercenaries from Italy in 282 BC. The Marmerites, as they came to be known, were besieged by Siracusa and appealed to both Carthage and Rome for help. The Carthaginians arrived first and ejected the Siracusans. Undeterred the Romans arrived and took the city from the Carthaginians. This united the former enemies Carthage and Siracusa against Rome.

The Punic Wars Reach Sicily

In 264 BC the First Punic War began. The Carthaginian and Siracusan attack on Messina was repelled and Siracusa changed sides, choosing to become a vassal of Rome. Rome swiftly gained control of Katane, which was renamed Catina (Catania). Then it set its sights on Agrigento which fell in 262 BC.

The following year Hamilcar Barca – father of the legendary Hannibal – destroyed Erice to prevent it falling into Roman hands. He deported the population to Drepanon (Trapani). In 256 BC Rome launched an unsuccessful attack on Carthage itself. In 250 BC the Carthaginians destroyed Selinunte once and for all. The Romans had little interest in Selinunte and Drepanon. Segesta and Erice were a different matter. Due to their allegedly shared ancestry with Rome, these cities were treated with respect and reverence. They were lovingly restored. But first there was a war to fight.

Adherbal inflicted a naval defeat on the Romans in the waters close to Drepanon in 249 BC, but the Carthaginians were far from having everything their own way. Consul Lutatius Catulus would end the First Punic War eight years later with victory over the Carthaginian fleet at the Battle of Egadi Islands which was close to the west coast of Sicily. Carthage ceded Sicily to Rome along with other island states and had to pay a humiliating tribute to Rome.

It had little choice, but at least some Carthaginians refused to accept the hegemony of Rome. Siracusa had avoided conquest, but at a huge cost. The once proud Greek city-state was no more than a vassal of Rome. The Italian city-state was far from in full control of the island, but it had announced its arrival as a major power with the defeat of Carthage and humiliation of Siracusa. The emergence of Agrigento as a major player had been nipped in the bud.

The End of Carthage

Carthage had lost the First Punic War. The Tunisian city-state would never be the same again. Hamilcar Barca hated Rome with rare intensity – a passion he passed on to his young son Hannibal. The boy promised his father to hate Rome until his dying day – a promise that Hannibal kept. The powerful Barca clan set off in pursuit of new conquests. Hamilcar planned to rebuild the Carthaginian Empire by seizing other colonies and then recover lost territories from Rome.

He began this task in Spain. According to some he is the true founder of Barçelona and the city is named after him. The Spanish campaign would cost Hamilcar Barca his life. He was killed in battle in southern Spain by the Ibericos. Hamilcar was succeeded by his son-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair – founder of the strategic defensive strong-hold of Cartagena.

Hasdrubal consolidated the Carthaginian presence in Spain, but did little to further Hamilcar Barca’s long term plan to avenge the humiliation of the First Punic War. He favoured diplomacy and reached settlement with Rome regarding their boundaries in Spain. In 221 BC Hasdrubal the Fair was assassinated by a slave. He was succeeded by Hamilcar Barca’s son Hannibal, now deemed old enough to command his father’s forces – he had been 19 when Hamilcar was killed.

Hannibal

Hannibal had other ideas. In 218 BC he began the Second Punic War by setting out from Cartagena, conquering both Xàtiva and Sagunt on his travels, destroying the latter. Hannibal had a plan to cross the Alps into Italy, gathering supporters along the way to attack and destroy Rome. His best chance arrived after the masterful execution of his strategy at the Battle of Cannei in 216 BC, but rather than press on to Rome Hannibal sought assistance from Carthage that was not forthcoming.1

Among the Roman survivors at Cannei was Publius Cornelius Scipio. He would prove to be Hannibal’s nemesis. While Hannibal was occupied in Italy, Scipio was busy in Spain – a strategy that would not only end Punic control of Spain, but establish it as part of the Roman Empire. Scipio rebuilt Sagunt and Romanised it in the process. It was a strategy that would soon be used in Sicily as well.

Hannibal arrived in Siracusa in 213 BC. The following year Siracusa fell under Roman control. During the attack on Siracusa the great mathematician and physicist Archimedes was killed. Siracusa’s influence in Sicilian affairs was at an end. The Romans began to rebuild Sicily after its fall. Agriculture thrived under Rome’s policy. Carthaginian involvement in Sicily was at an end.

However, Rome’s regeneration policy was highly selective. The Greek city of Selinunte was never revived and nor was Drepanon. Segesta and Erice fared well due to their alleged foundation by refugees from the Trojan War. Both Selinunte and Drepanon had been cities allied to Carthage, although neither had a choice. However, Segesta’s alliance with Carthage that had resulted in the Greek city falling under Carthaginian control was forgiven and forgotten.

Siracusa too did not benefit as nearby Catina did. And in 202 BC the Second Punic War came to an end with Hannibal’s defeat at the Battle of Zama. Scipio had successfully used Hannibal’s own tactics against him. His grandson would lead Roman forces to victory in the Third Punic War. Carthage would be razed to the ground in 146 BC. Meanwhile, the city-state rivalries continued with new overlords, but rivalries simmered beneath the surface. Sooner or later they would erupt again.

Continuation

So what has all this history got to do with football? In ancient times disputes or even rivalries between the city-states were settled on the battlefield. Now such rivalries between cities tend not to be resolved by resorting to war, however tempting that might be, but inter-city rivalries and even regional ones persist. They find an outlet in sport – especially the most popular sport in the world.

The tribal nature of sport allows geographic rivalries to thrive. The violence and jingoism of the city-states of the past is expressed in the sometimes violent loyalty to local teams today. And this trend can be seen on a regional basis as well. Marc Zoro says that he gets it everywhere he plays, especially in the north and centre of Italy. This suggests that regionalism plays a part in the abuse that Zoro has had to endure for three years. Zoro, after all plays for a Sicilian team.

 

 

1 Rome would not face such peril again until Arminius (Hermann) inflicted a disastrous defeat on Quintilius Varus at Kalkriese in 9 AD in Germany. That defeat cost the Emperor Augustus three legions and led to fears that Arminius would march on Rome itself – a threat that did not materialise as Arminius’ aim was to unite German tribes under his leadership rather than conquer Rome. In 21 AD Arminius was murdered by his own relatives after waging a successful guerrilla war for twelve years.

 

 

The Mark of Zoro (Part One) – Archive

Editor’s Note

We publish these articles from our series The Mark of Zoro again with sadness, as more than seven years have passed. Racism in football has yet to be tackled and conquered. The sanctions have proved inadequate.

Derek Miller

by Satish Sekar © Satish Sekar January 1st 2007

“Racism is the biggest problem facing football across Europe. People think that it has disappeared, but it hasn’t. It is time for all of us to take a stand – players, fans and authorities. It’s time to stand up and speak up.” : Thierry Henry

No Mas

Outraged by persistent monkey-chanting Marc Zoro – yes Marc Zoro – decides that enough is enough. It is time to make a stand against racists in football. Zoro picks up the ball and heads for the officials. He will not allow the match to continue. The racist abuse has to stop or the match will stop.

On February 26th 2006 Barcelona’s Cameroonian international striker Samuel Eto’o made headlines for his stance against racism in football. Eto’o decided that he could tolerate the monkey-chanting and peanut-throwing from Real Zaragoza fans no longer. He began to walk off the pitch.

Opponents Ewerthon – himself the victim of racist abuse in other stadiums in Spain – and Álvaro joined Eto’o’s team-mates in pleading with him not to let the bigots win. He was persuaded to return by Frank Rijkaard – Barcelona’s coach. Rijkaard told Eto’o that the best way to beat the racists in Zaragoza’s La Romareda stadium was to beat their team.

Point Made

Eto’o was persuaded to carry on, but it was clear that a defining moment in the fight against racism in football had been reached. Inspirational play-maker Ronaldinho scored a penalty and ran straight to Eto’o to celebrate with him even though Eto’o had neither scored the goal nor made it.

Ronaldinho had previously asked Eto’o not to walk off, but had assured the Cameroonian that if Eto’o refused to carry on, he would follow him off the pitch. Ronaldinho had unequivocally made his statement against racism in football as well. Eto’o made the second goal for Henrik Larsson.

Barcelona won the match 2-0, but Eto’o and football won a lot more. As he left the Aragónese team’s stadium he was greeted with yet more monkey-chanting. However, he had placed the issue of racism in Spanish football firmly back on the agenda in Spain.

And this was not the first time that La Romareda’s hardcore racists had targeted Eto’o. Although he did not score on this occasion, Eto’o scored in the same fixture the previous season. After being monkey-chanted then as well Eto’o celebrated the goal by mimicking a monkey. He had made his point.

So when was the Ivory Coast international defender Marc Zoro racially abused by the Romareda’s racist supporters? Actually it did not happen in Zaragoza. And nor did it happen in Madrid, Santander, La Coruña, Barcelona, Valencia or Seville either. In fact the racist abuse of Marc Zoro cannot be blamed on any Spanish fans.

Well if not Spain, which eastern European country was to blame? Wrong again. And this did not occur in Germany or the Netherlands either. English racists of the 70s and 80s can be blamed for much, but not this. Nor did this occur in Britain at any time. Zoro plies his trade for the Sicilian club Messina.

Historical Influences

We have had numerous cultural and historical influences,” says lawyer, author and B&B owner Gaetano Mustica. “They have shaped our development and made us the people we are.”

Generally bathed in sunshine – even in December – Sicily is an island that has much to recommend it. Its history boasts several influences. “We have had numerous historical and cultural influences over many centuries,” says author, lawyer and B&B owner Gaetano Mustica. “Everybody conquered us at some time. All of these influences have been incorporated into our consciousness. They have shaped our development and made us the people we are.”

The first major foreign influence was thought to be the Phoenicians – originally from Tyre and Sidon in Lebanon. They were among the greatest navigators and explorers of their age and adept as traders. In the eighth century BC they founded the city of Mozia (Motya) on the western coast, which would eventually be taken over by a colony that the Phoenicians had founded on the North African coast – Carthage.

Perhaps the most important city that the Phoenicians founded in Sicily was Panormus (Palermo). They also established colonies in Cyprus, Malta, Sardinia and Corsica. The influence of the Phoenicians has been largely underestimated, but in fact, they were far from the first of the great civilisations to reach Sicily’s shores.

Sicily was populated by the Sicans and Sicels – who had originally come from North Africa and southern Italy – when the legendary Cretan King Minos landed in hot pursuit of the craftsman Dædalos who had fled to Sicily to avoid Minos’ rage. Dædalos soon proved his worth to the Sican King Kokalos, designing a secure palace for the monarch to conceal his treasures. He had previously the labyrinth to imprison the mythical minotaur.

But Dædalos had fallen foul of Minos and the Cretan king demanded that Kokalos punish the master craftsman. Kokalos agreed and invited Minos to his palace and drowned him in his daughter’s bath when boiling water was thrown onto him. Claiming that it was an accident Kokalos gave the body to the Cretans who buried him nearby. Thus died Minos, the founder of the Minoan civilisation.

According to legend he would become one of the three judges of the underworld. The site of his tomb became a shrine which would eventually fall into disuse and be lost for centuries. In the fifth century BC Theron – tyrant of Agrigento – would discover Minos’ tomb and return his bones to Crete.

Sicily played a huge role in Greek mythology. The cities of Erice and Segesta were said to have been founded by refugees from the Trojan War – the Elymni who had come to Sicily from Asia Minor. According to legend Æneas himself – hero of Roman poet Virgil’s The Æneid – founded Erice.

And on the other side of the island Odysseus was said to have arrived. The island rocks off the eastern coast were said by the Greek poet Homer to have been thrown at the fleeing Odysseus by the man-eating one-eyed Cyclops Polyphemus. Science tells us that the real culprit was the volcanic Mount Etna. Nevertheless, there is no question that Greeks had a major influence on the development of Sicily.

Savage Behaviour

“To shout racist insults and to throw things at players is just savage behaviour,” said Marc Zoro. “Sometimes it’s even worse.”

Eto’o gained international plaudits for his stand against racism. It also had the effect of making him a target for racists. The bigots of Zaragoza targeted him. Monkey-chanting was known to offend him. Others tried it too. But the tide was turning against the racists.

He was monkey-chanted while playing against Racing Santander as well. In Zaragoza the referee had stopped the game to ask for an announcement demanding the racist abuse stop. It had the opposite effect. Santander’s racists had misjudged the times. A similar announcement resulted in the majority of Santander fans booing the racists.

Meanwhile, Eto’o continued to score goals and established himself as one of the most feared strikers in Europe. He demanded action on racism from both the Spanish Football Federation and journalists. There were plenty of articles as journalists belatedly took up the cudgels.

However, the Spanish Federation was lax in the extreme in dealing with this problem – a problem that could lead to an exodus of black talent from Spanish football if it was not dealt with. The Spanish government decided it was time to get tough.

And FIFA made it clear that racism would no longer be tolerated with its change to Rule 55. Eto’o had became the poster-boy of the fight against racism in football, but what about Marc Zoro? He has made a definitive stand against racism in Italian football.